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February 29, 2012 / 12castgi

Data Response 4.6

1. Foreign Direct Investment is an investment that involves giving foreign money to another firm that isn’t in the same country as the investor. This is basically like an American investor investing in a firm, usually in a developed country like Philippines. Foreign aid on the other hand, is an injection of funds into a country or population in need of assistance. Foreign Direct Investment is money injected with the purpose of gaining profits or benefitting from the investment.

2. Because of the natural disaster that occurred in Japan, it must focus first on aiding its people, as opposed to giving foreign aid to other countries. Government expenditure on disaster relief and laborers / workers which will help to clean up the mess that the earthquake created. The negative externality of the earthquake also affects business firms within the area of the earthquake. The government will have to help these firms by subsidizing. Radiation from the nuclear power plants, catalyzed by the earthquake may very well have poisoned the water around as well, making it dangerous to eat seafoods. These business firms that are involved in supplying / selling fish, will require assistance from the government as demand for their product will significantly decrease due to fear of getting radiation poisoning from the food.

3. Recipient nations of the foreign aid from Japan will of course experience a slowing in their economic growth. As foreign aid is often used to fund infrastructure projects, and the building of buildings in the recipient country, with the sudden earthquake disaster causing Japan to withdraw its aid, these projects will slow, if not come to a halt.

4. The argument for foreign aid is that it can help developed countries to achieve economic growth, and in the future, perhaps form a partnership with its sponsor country, in an FTA, wherein they can benefit from each other because of their comparative advantages and endowments. Foreign aid helps to improve the standard of living for the people receiving the foreign aid as well. The cons to foreign aid however, are that the recipient country might have a corrupt government which actually just pockets the money instead of improving their own economy for a long term benefit for all. The recipient country may also become overly dependent on the foreign aid, serving as a burden on the sponsor country, eventually causing them to withdraw.

February 21, 2012 / 12castgi

5.5b Studies of Behavior

1. We can see that during the time of early autumn, the flights last from 8PM to 12AM. Prior to sunset however, we can see that the bats have  short flights after sunset. As autumn progresses, the flights are more average in length, shortening as autumn progresses. This is because as it nears winter, the sun sets earlier. The earliest sunset they fly is at 6PM near the end of autumn.

2a. Summer sees more bat flights than autumn, where we can see bat flights only occur one time per day during autumn. However, a pattern that we can see is that their flights usually start during sunset on both seasons. The largest difference can be seen during the late summer though is that bats start their flight during the sunrise as well.

2b. I believe that the flights have something to do with hunting for prey and feeding. During the autumn, perhaps the peak time at which insects come out for the bats are between the times of 6PM to 12AM, where the bats can feed. In comparison, summer shows many different short flights because perhaps there are more available prey for the bats during more times as opposed to one 6 hour period during the day like in autumn.

3. I can see rhythmical variation in the bats, where we can see during the summer the bats fly on more occasions than during the autumn. During the autumn, it is consistent, following the time of the sunset and flying once a day. The difference however, is that the sunsets vary as time passes, getting earlier, until it reaches summer again, meaning that there is still rhythmic variation.

February 21, 2012 / 12castgi

E.5a Altruism in Species Inquiry

1. I choose the lions, or, Panthera leo. They reside in groups called prides. Usually, there are 6 females in a pride, with one or two males. The lionesses are usually the hunters of the pride, because of their lack of a conspicuous mane which other animals can see easily. When lionesses succeed in a hunt, the dominant male gets priority over the food, and is more likely to share with the cubs than with the lionesses. The alpha male tolerates cubs until 3-4 years old where they are able to challenge him for sexual access and leadership of the pride.

2. An example would be the hunting of the lionesses for the survivability of the pride, wherein the male doesn’t necessarily participate in the hunt all the time. At the same time, the cubs do not contribute, and serve as an extra mouth to feed. The male also makes it priority to feed the younger cubs, the next generation instead of the hunters.

3. The evolution of this altruistic behavior can be explained by the fact that animals simply wish to survive. The interdependence of the lions with each other show this. Without the male, the females have no protection or leadership, as well as sexual relationships with which to pass their genes onto. Without the females, the male will have difficulty hunting. And without the pride, the next generation of cubs will not be able to survive.

February 20, 2012 / 12castgi

E.3b Innate and Learned Behavior

1. We can see that both have their pitch going lower at the beginning. However, a break occurs and we can see that sonogram 2 doesn’t produce sound, and the difference being that sonogram 1 does. Both then fluctuate to a high pitch and lower. Sonogram 1 then shows a gradual increase to a high then low pitch with sonogram 2 rising more sharply than sonogram 1 from high to low.

2a.We can see that sonogram 1, 2 and 3 all have the similar and steady pitch. Also similar to sonogram 1 and 2, it has that sharp increase from high to low pitch. Unlike sonogram 1, it doesn’t produce that low pitch sound between sounds. Similar to sonogram 2 however, we can see the prolonged sound towards the end of its song.

2b. We can see that sonogram 3 has similarities to sonogram 1 and 2’s songs, but also differences. I think that it is innate. We can see the similar pattern towards the beginning between sonogram 1, 2 and 3. But the differences between 3, and 1, and 3, and 2, show that some of the song is learned as 3 shares characteristics between both songs but differences as well.

3. Sonogram 5 starts with a consistent and steady pitch, where we can see that sonogram 4 varies in pitch. Both birds, towards the middle part of their song show sharp fluctuations in pitch, going up and down, both fading as time passes.

3b. Sonogram 1,2 and 5 open with a consistent and steady pitch. The difference however, is that we can clearly see that 5 only has about two parts in its song, whereas 1 and 2’s songs are divided into three parts.

3c. Doesn’t carry a reproductive advantage. Wouldn’t be able to attract their other species, making it a disadvantage.

3d. Sonogram 5 has many similarities to 1, 2, and 3, suggesting that it is innate. However, all the rest of the song are different from 1, 2, and 3, showing that it is probably a learned behavior.

February 20, 2012 / 12castgi

Economics 4.4 Role of International Trade

1. An FTA is known as a group of countries that remove trade barriers, only specifically between members of the FTA. This means that they don’t impose tariffs on members, but can impose tariffs on their non-member countries that they are trading with. An example would be the EFTA and this is the European Free Trade Association. The four members of this EFTA are Iceland, Liechstenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.

2. The pros to having an FTA between countries is that, depending on their geographical placement next to each other, they will be able to more effectively trade goods and services. Trade will become a lot easier without the imposition of trade barriers, and exporting will be much cheaper for exporters. Also, at the same time, if members in an FTA are specialized in creating a certain product, with comparative advantage, then this is to the benefit of the other members. The downside to this, is that if, in opposite to what I just stated, the comparative advantage of what is being supplied / exported and imported to other members, then the consumers will be forced to make purchases, creating a drop in productivity. The lower export costs because of lack of trade barriers may affect the domestic firms of the other members of the FTA as well.

3. Bilateral trade agreements are basically FTAs but only between two countries, forming a partnership. While we can see that the lack of trade barriers between these two countries carries the implied decrease in export costs, it also carries problems along with it. With a decrease in export costs, the foreign goods, coming in from the partner of a country, into the domestic economy, will be much more attractive to the consumer because of its low price. This can create competition between the domestic firms and the foreign firm in the bilateral trade agreement. However, we can see that along with an increase in exports due to a decrease in export costs, job opportunities will also open up in the exporting businesses. An example would be the bilateral trade agreement between the United States and Mexico. Both countries have experienced a rise in GDP because of their constant trading with each other, without trade barriers. This is a pro. With multilateral trade agreements, the failing Euro is affecting all of the countries which share the currency. With the economic crisis in Europe, affecting members like Italy, we can see that Germany has to back up for their debts as well, else Germany’s economy will suffer the consequences. This is a con with multilateral trade agreements, as we can see that, while having many partners in an FTA can create benefits, having too many will burden your country, similar to what is happening with Germany.

February 17, 2012 / 12castgi

E.3a Innate and Learned Behavior

1. One way to bring them out would be changing the temperature in their environment, forcing them out. This applies only to the first group. The other method would be placing species A on one arm, with species B on the opposite. Since its been mentioned that they are attracted to the scent of their own species, A should start moving towards the direction of its own species, with B doing the same.

2. The majority of all three species tend to be more attracted towards the scented arm. However, some go towards the unscented.

3. I can guess that these species have special olfactory receptors, which are chemoreceptors that receive scents in the air, and create an action potential leading to the brain.

4a. The main concern for these species is their survivability, and being rather fragile due to their size, must reproduce in large quantities to ensure survivability. Thus, the effect of this instinct is that they will go where most of their species are in order to reproduce.

4b. We can see that, there are some that do not travel to where their possible mates could be. This is because the lower population areas would probably tend to have a lot more resources and less competition for food. We can see that the reproduction tends to be twice that of food consumption.

February 15, 2012 / 12castgi

E.1 Stimulus and Response

1. I don’t believe that the world sounds the same to two different animals. Perhaps because they have adapted differently in order to react to different stimuli to fit their purposes of surviving. If we look at figure 3, showing the frequencies, it can be seen that the sensitivities of different mammals to frequencies of sound vary greatly. With the humans, cats, guinea pigs and monkeys, their sensitivity is relatively similar to each other, but not identical.

2. I believe that, to us, the real world is the one which we perceive. However, as already established in question 1, we can see that different organisms perceive the world in different ways. The way we see colors changes our perception of the world, where in comparison, dogs carry less cones in their eyes and so are able to sense less color than we do. Again referring to Figure 3, there are certain frequencies which we are highly sensitive to, but others which we cannot hear, and that other animals can. So the real world is not necessarily only what we perceive, and that in order to gain full perception of the world, the way all organisms see it must be combined, as we all view it in different ways.

3. Personally, I believe that there is actually a construction of reality. Science cannot be explained purely through what we can see, as before microscopes were invented people didn’t see cells. Just because we couldn’t see it doesn’t mean that its not real. Similar to how goldfish can see ultraviolet light and we can’t.